4×4 Off Road Recovery 101
4×4 Off Road Recovery 101: Know Thyself!
This is a pretty self explanatory concept. Know your personal limits and stick to them when recovering vehicles. There are massive amounts of potential energy and forces that are built up when recovering vehicles. One false step at the right time can lead to disasters. If you don’t know how to properly setup mechanical advantage, then don’t. If you don’t have experience rolling a vehicle over in a safe environment, don’t try it in a dangerous one. If you are intoxicated, leave it until you sober up. Know your limits.
4×4 Off Road Recovery 101: Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)
So much of recovering vehicles is basic physics. If you push the rules of physics, then you break equipment. When recovering a vehicle, you want to make sure that you know that vehicle’s Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) as well as your own GVW. For recovery purposes, and the rest of this article, you can think of GVW as a culmination of the actual GVW of the vehicle, plus the added forces from the terrain (mud vacuum, snow build up under the differential, pulling uphill), minus the ability of the vehicle to roll on its wheels, on its given terrain. All of these variables factor into the working load of a recovery pull.
If the GVW of the vehicle that needs to be recovered is MORE than the GVW of the vehicle doing the recovery, then you need to do something to the recovery vehicle to effectively increase its GVW. You can do this by making sure the recovery vehicle has more traction than the problem vehicle, or by anchoring the recovery vehicle with a Land Anchor or another vehicle.
4×4 Off Road Recovery 101: Suction Sucks
A big part of recoveries is knowing what the terrain is doing around the vehicle. Again, basic physics.
Mud is notorious for creating a nice vacuum around objects that go into it. It also likes to fill all the gaps in the tread on tires so that you can’t get traction anymore. With low friction to gain traction, and a vacuum around the tires, mud is one of the harder terrains to recover a vehicle from and will require more force to begin with, in order to break the vacuum. A traction adding device like MAXSA Escaper Buddy or X-Bull Traction Ladder will work wonders to help give you traction in mud.
Think of snow as tiny particles of fluffy ice. Which, takes away traction once it compresses, but it also likes to build up in burms when compressed too. Once you have a burm built up in front of the tires or frame or axle, those fluffy ice particles join together to create a more solid wall of ice. Snow may also require more force to begin with, but you can help mitigate that by shoveling out the burms. Again, traction adding devices like MAXSA Escaper Buddy or X-Bull Traction Ladder will also work really well in the snow. Pair one of these traction boards with any of these shovels from Trail4R.com, and you will be set for mud, sand, or snow!
4×4 Off Road Recovery 101: Working Loads and Breaking Strengths
Every single piece of recovery equipment (winches, straps, shackles, snatch blocks, pins, winch lines, etc) will have a couple of ratings either printed on them or available when you purchase the item. If it doesn’t have a rating available when you purchase it, DO NOT BUY IT FOR RECOVERY PURPOSES. A working load rating is what the item is rated at for its intended purpose, in order to stay safe, and resist excess wear and premature breakage. A breaking strength is the limits of the equipment, that, should never be exceeded.
For example a lot of 3/4 “ metal bow shackles have a working load rating of between 7,000lbs and 10,000lbs. This means, that they should not be used in recovering a vehicle whos GVW exceeds 10,000lbs. Most of them have a 4-5x breaking strength though, which means they can withstand forces up to 55,000lbs.
These increased forces should only be occurring through peak forces, or shockloading. While static pulling, the working load should never be exceeded.
4×4 Off Road Recovery 101: Static Pull vs Kinetic (Dynamic) Pull
There will be situations in 4×4 Off Road Recoveries where you will need to use both static and kinetic pulls. A static pull is one where the line you are using is pulled tight prior to the recovery pull. There is no stretch or give in the line and system, and when you start pulling, something is going to either move or break. A kinetic pull is one where there is a little bit of slack left in the line, so that when the line is pulled tight on the recovery pull, a shockload is created. A shockload is a sudden onset of an extreme force to a system. However, shockloading a system can lead to forces that quickly and dangerously exceed the breaking strength on your equipment.
Static pulls are done slowly. They rely on torque and slow, gradual movements. Items like chains, steel cable, and low stretch rope work very well for static pulls. If you are stuck on rocks, you want to do static pulls. Static pulls also work great on snow, and mud, so long as you can make the GVW of the problem vehicle lower than the GVW of the recovery vehicle. Avoid attempting static pulls with kinetic ropes and other dynamic stretch recovery devices, as these devices will have a tendency to stretch and rebound creating a rubber band between the 2 vehicles.
Kinetic pulls are done more vigorously. You usually need a kinetic pull in situations where you need to break a vehicle free so that it can then roll freely. Mud, sand, and snow are great situations for a kinetic pull, if the recovery vehicle is also on the same surface. Kinetic pulls should only be done with kinetic ropes (such as a BubbaRope or Billet4x4 Kinetic Rope) that stretch and then rebound themselves. This helps prevent high shockload forces on the system.